55. Included and excluded losses

(1)Subject to the provisions of this Act, and unless the policy otherwise provides, the insurer is liable for any loss proximately caused by a peril insured against, but, subject as aforesaid, he is not liable for any loss which is not proximately caused by a peril insured against.

(2)In particular?

(a)The insurer is not liable for any loss attributable to the wilful misconduct of the assured, but unless the policy otherwise provides, he is liable for any loss proximately caused by a peril insured against, even though the loss would not have happened but for the misconduct or negligence of the master or crew;

(b)Unless the policy otherwise provides, the insurer on ship or goods is not liable for any loss proximately caused by delay, although the delay be caused by a peril insured against;

(c)Unless the policy otherwise provides, the insurer is not liable for ordinary wear and tear, ordinary leakage and breakage, inherent vice or nature of the subject-matter insured, or for any loss proximately caused by rats or vermin, or for any injury to machinery not proximately caused by maritime perils.




56. Partial and total loss

(1)A loss may be either total or partial. Any loss other than a total loss, as hereinafter defined, is a partial loss.

(2)A total loss may be either an actual total loss, or a constructive total loss.

(3)Unless a different intention appears from the terms of the policy, an insurance against total loss includes a constructive, as well as an actual, total loss.

(4)Where the assured brings an action for a total loss and the evidence proves only a partial loss, he may, unless the policy otherwise provides, recover for a partial loss.

(5)Where goods reach their destination in specie, but by reason of obliteration of marks, or otherwise, they are incapable of identification, the loss, if any, is partial, and not total.


【概 要】
損害の種類を規定していて、全損および分損を定義しています。
損害は、全損と分損のいずれかとする。全損の定義は下記とし、それ以外を分損と規定しています。
①全損は、現実全損と推定全損
②全損を担保する保険は、推定全損も補償します。
③仕向地到着時に被保険貨物の同一性を識別できない場合は、分損とする。




57. Actual total loss

(1)Where the subject-matter insured is destroyed, or so damaged as to cease to be a thing of the kind insured, or where the assured is irretrievably deprived thereof, there is an actual total loss.

(2)In the case of an actual total loss no notice of abandonment need be given.


【概 要】
現実全損の定義
①被保険貨物が破壊されるか、付保された当初の種類の物として存在できないほどの大きな損害を被った場合
②被保険者が被保険貨物を奪われてその回復ができない場合

①②の状態が現実全損として扱われ、委付の通知は必要としない旨を規定しています。




58. Missing ship

Where the ship concerned in the adventure is missing, and after the lapse of a reasonable time no news of her has been received, an actual total loss may be presumed.


【概 要】
消息不明船舶の被保険貨物の取扱について、相当期間経過後に消息不明の場合は、現実是す損とする旨を規定しています。




59. Effect of transshipment, &c.

Where, by a peril insured against, the voyage is interrupted at an intermediate port or place, under such circumstances as, apart from any special stipulation in the contract of affreightment, to justify the master in landing and reshipping the goods or other moveables, or in transshipping them, and sending them on to their destination, the liability of the insurer continues, notwithstanding the landing or transhipment.


【概 要】
船長の権限によって被保険貨物等を陸揚し、再積込みをすること、または積替えて仕向地に輸送することが正当な事由の下で行なわれる場合に、保険はその間も継続する旨規定しています。




60. Constructive total loss defined

(1)Subject to any express provision in the policy, there is a constructive total loss where the subject-matter insured is reasonably abandoned on account of its actual total loss appearing to be unavoidable, or because it could not be preserved from actual total loss without an expenditure which would exceed its value when the expenditure had been incurred.

(2)In particular, there is a constructive total loss?

(i)Where the assured is deprived of the possession of his ship or goods by a peril insured against, and (a) it is unlikely that he can recover the ship or goods, as the case may be, or (b) the cost of recovering the ship or goods, as the case may be, would exceed their value when recovered; or

(ii)In the case of damage to a ship, where she is so damaged by a peril insured against that the cost of repairing the damage would exceed the value of the ship when repaired.
In estimating the cost of repairs, no deduction is to be made in respect of general average contributions to those repairs payable by other interests, but account is to be taken of the expense of future salvage operations and of any future general average contributions to which the ship would be liable if repaired; or

(iii)In the case of damage to goods, where the cost of repairing the damage and forwarding the goods to their destination would exceed their value on arrival.


【概 要】
推定全損を規定しています。推定全損の成立条件は下記の通りです。
①被保険貨物が現実全損を避けがたいとき
②現実全損を避けるための支出費用が被保険貨物の価額を超える見込みのとき

①②の状態で、被保険貨物が正当に破棄される場合に保険金支払が承認される旨を規定しています。




61. Effect of constructive total loss

Where there is a constructive total loss the assured may either treat the loss as a partial loss, or abandon the subject-matter insured to the insurer and treat the loss as if it were an actual total loss.


【概 要】
推定全損がある場合に被保険者はその損害を分損として処理するか、保険者に委付通知をして現実全損として処理する事ができる旨を規定しています。




62. Notice of abandonment

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, where the assured elects to abandon the subject-matter insured to the insurer, he must give notice of abandonment. If he fails to do so the loss can only be treated as a partial loss.

(2)Notice of abandonment may be given in writing, or by word of mouth, or partly in writing and partly by word of mouth, and may be given in any terms which indicate the intention of the assured to abandon his insured interest in the subject-matter insured unconditionally to the insurer.

(3)Notice of abandonment must be given with reasonable diligence after the receipt of reliable information of the loss, but where the information is of a doubtful character the assured is entitled to a reasonable time to make inquiry.

(4)Where notice of abandonment is properly given, the rights of the assured are not prejudiced by the fact that the insurer refuses to accept the abandonment.

(5)The acceptance of an abandonment may be either express or implied from the conduct of the insurer.
The mere silence of the insurer after notice is not an acceptance.

(6)Where notice of abandonment is accepted the abandonment is irrevocable.
The acceptance of the notice conclusively admits liability for the loss and the sufficiency of the notice.

(7)Notice of abandonment is unnecessary where, at the time when the assured receives information of the loss, there would be no possibility of benefit to the insurer if notice were given to him.

(8)Notice of abandonment may be waived by the insurer.

(9)Where an insurer has re-insured his risk, no notice of abandonment need by given by him.


【概 要】
被保険者が被保険貨物を保険者に委付することを選ぶ場合は、被保険者は委付の通知をしなければならず、通知をしない場合は分損として損害処理がなされます。委付の通知は口頭でも文書でもよく、特に文言の指定もありません。内容的には「被保険貨物の被保険利益を無条件に保険者に委付する」旨の意思表示があればよいと規定されています。また、保険者に利益を与える見込みが全くない場合は委付の通知は必要ありません。
委付の承諾は明示的にまたは黙示的に保険者の行為によりなされ、承諾通知がなされた場合に、委付を撤回する事はできない旨を規定しています。




63. Effect of abandonment

(1)Where there is a valid abandonment the insurer is entitled to take over the interest of the assured in whatever may remain of the subject-matter insured, and all proprietary rights incidental thereto.

(2)Upon the abandonment of a ship, the insurer thereof is entitled to any freight in course of being earned, and which is earned by her subsequent to the casualty causing the loss, less the expenses of earning it incurred after the casualty; and, where the ship is carrying the owner’s goods, the insurer is entitled to a reasonable remuneration for the carriage of them subsequent to the casualty causing the loss.


【概 要】
有効な委付がある場合に保険者は、被保険貨物の残存部分についての被保険者利益および付随する全ての財産権を継承する旨を規定しています。