64.Particular average loss

(1)A particular average loss is a partial loss of the subject-matter insured, caused by a peril insured against, and which is not a general average loss.

(2)Expenses incurred by or on behalf of the assured for the safety or preservation of the subject-matter insured, other than general average and salvage charges, are called particular charges.
Particular charges are not included in particular average.


【概 要】
単独海損損害とは、共同海損ではない保険にて担保される危険に対しての被保険貨物の分損である旨を規定しています。particular chargesは被保険貨物の安全及び安全な状態にての保存のために被保険者によって、または被保険者のために支出された費用で、共同海損と救助料以外の費用であり、単独海損には含まれない旨を規定してます。




65. Salvage charges

(1)Subject to any express provision in the policy, salvage charges incurred in preventing a loss by perils insured against may be recovered as a loss by those perils.

(2)”Salvage charges” means the charges recoverable under maritime law by a salvor independently of contract.
They do not include the expenses of services in the nature of salvage rendered by the assured or his agents, or any person employed for hire by them, for the purpose of averting a peril insured against. Such expenses, where properly incurred, may be recovered as particular charges or as a general average loss, according to the circumstances under which they were incurred.


【概 要】
保険にて担保される危険に対しての被保険貨物の損害を防ぐために支出した救助料は填補される旨を規定しています。また、救助料は契約に関係なく”maritime law”の下、救助者が回収できる費用と定義されています。
被保険者等に報酬を約された者が保険にて担保される危険に対しての被保険貨物の損害を防ぐために行なった救助は、「particular charges」 または共同海損損害として回収が可能であり、救助料には含まれない旨を規定しています。




66. G general average loss

(1)A general average loss is a loss caused by or directly consequential on a general average act.
It includes a general average expenditure as well as a general average sacrifice.

(2)There is a general average act where any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is voluntarily and reasonably made or incurred in time of peril for the purpose of preserving the property imperilled in the common adventure.

(3)Where there is a general average loss, the party on whom it falls is entitled, subject to the conditions imposed by maritime law, to a rateable contribution from the other parties interested, and such contribution is called a general average contribution.

(4)Subject to any express provision in the policy, where the assured has incurred a general average expenditure, he may recover from the insurer in respect of the proportion of the loss which falls upon him;
and, in the case of a general average sacrifice, he may recover from the insurer in respect of the whole loss without having enforced his right of contribution from the other parties liable to contribute.

(5)Subject to any express provision in the policy, where the assured has paid, or is liable to pay, a general average contribution in respect of the subject insured, he may recover therefor from the insurer.

(6)In the absence of express stipulation, the insurer is not liable for any general average loss or contribution where the loss was not incurred for the purpose of avoiding, or in connection with the avoidance of, a peril insured against.

(7)Where ship, freight, and cargo, or any two of those interests, are owned by the same assured, the liability of the insurer in respect of general average losses or contributions is to be determined as if those subjects were owned by different persons.


【概 要】
共同海損損害は共同海損行為により、またはその直接の結果を原因として生じる損害であり、共同海損犠牲と共同海損費用を含む旨を規定しています。また、共同海損分担額を被害者が他の利害関係者に請求できる権利として認めており、共同海損損害における保険者の責任と被保険者の権利についても規定されています。