42. Implied condition as to commencement of risk

(1) Where the subject-matter is insured by a voyage policy ‘at and from’ or ‘from’ a particular place, it is not necessary that the ship should be at that place when the contract is concluded, but there is an implied condition that the adventure shall be commenced within a reasonable time, and that if the adventure be not so commenced the insurer may avoid the contract.

(2) The implied condition may be negatived by showing that the delay was caused by circumstances known to the insurer before the contract was concluded, or by showing that he waived the condition.




43. Alteration of port of departure

Where the place of departure is specified by the policy, and the ship instead of sailing from that place sails from any other place, the risk does not attach.


【概 要】
仕出地の変更についての項目で、保険証券に記載されている仕出地と異なる地から本船が出航した場合は、保険の危険開始がされない旨を規定してます。




44. Sailing for different destination

Where the destination is specified in the policy, and the ship, instead of sailing for that destination, sails for any other destination, the risk does not attach.


【概 要】
仕向地の変更についての項目で、保険証券に記載されている仕向地と異なる地へ本船が出航した場合は、保険の危険開始がされない旨を規定してます。




45. Change of voyage

(1) Where, after the commencement of the risk, the destination of the ship is voluntarily changed from the destination contemplated by the policy, there is said to be a change of voyage.

(2) Unless the policy otherwise provides, where there is a change of voyage, the insurer is discharged from liability as from the time of change, that is to say, as from the time when the determination to change it is manifested;
and it is immaterial that the ship may not in fact have left the course of voyage contemplated by the policy when the loss occurs.


【概 要】
航海の変更についての条項で、危険開始後に船舶の仕向地が保険証券記載の地から変更される場合は、航海の変更があったものとする旨を定義しています。また、保険者は航海の変更の決定があった時点より無責となり、損害発生時に本船が保険証券に記載された航路を離れていなくてもその事実はなんら影響しないことを規定しています。




46. Deviation

(1) Where a ship, without lawful excuse, deviates from the voyage contemplated by the policy, the insurer is discharged from liability as from the time of deviation, and it is immaterial that the ship may have regained her route before any loss occurs.

(2) There is a deviation from the voyage contemplated by the policy?

(a) Where the course of the voyage is specifically designated by the policy, and that course is departed from; or

(b) Where the course of the voyage is not specifically designated by the policy, but the usual and customary course is departed from.

(3) The intention to deviate is immaterial; there must be a deviation in fact to discharge the insurer from his liability under the contract.


【概 要】
離路について定義をしている条項です。適法な理由なしの離路の場合に保険者は責任を免れます。下記の場合に英国法では、離路としています。

①保険証券に記載されている航路を離れるとき

②明記されてはいないが、通常かつ慣習上の航路を離れるとき




47. Several ports of discharge

(1) Where several ports of discharge are specified by the policy, the ship may proceed to all or any of them, but, in the absence of any usage or sufficient cause to the contrary, she must proceed to them, or such of them as she goes to, in the order designated by the policy. If she does not there is a deviation.

(2) Where the policy is to ‘ports of discharge,’ within a given area, which are not named, the ship must, in the absence of any usage or sufficient cause to the contrary, proceed to them, or such of them as she goes to, in their geographical order. If she does not there is a deviation.


【概 要】
46条に引き続き、離路について定義をしている条項です。46条の続きとして複数荷卸港の場合についての離路の規定をしています。

①数箇所の荷卸港が保険証券に記載されている場合は、明記された順序に従い、その全部にまたは一部に航行するべきはずが、しなかったとき。

②保険証券に「諸荷卸港」と記載されている場合は、地理的順序に従い、その全部にまたは一部に航行するべきはずが、しなかったとき。




48. DELAY IN VOYAGE

In the case of a voyage policy, the adventure insured must be prosecuted throughout its course with reasonable dispatch, and,
if without lawful excuse it is not so prosecuted, the insurer is discharged from liability as from the time when the delay became unreasonable.




49. EXCUSES FOR DEVIATION OR DELAY

(1)Deviation or delay in prosecuting the voyage contemplated by the policy is excused?

(a)Where authorised by any special term in the policy; or

(b)Where caused by circumstances beyond the control of the master and his employer; or

(c)Where reasonably necessary in order to comply with an express or implied warranty; or

(d)Where reasonably necessary for the safety of the ship or subject-matter insured; or

(e)For the purpose of saving human life, or aiding a ship in distress where human life may be in danger; or

(f)Where reasonably necessary for the purpose of obtaining medical or surgical aid for any person on board the ship; or

(g)Where caused by the barratrous conduct of the master or crew, if barratry be one of the perils insured against.

(2)When the cause excusing the deviation or delay ceases to operate, the ship must resume her course, and prosecute her voyage, with reasonable dispatch.